1. A method for testing a claim or hypothesis about a parameter in a population, using data measured in a sample, is called

random sampling

level of significance

hypothesis testing

guessing

2. The one-sample *z* test is a hypothesis test used to test hypotheses

concerning a single population with a known variance

concerning at least one population

concerning the variance in a population

all of the above

3. Given the following values: *μ* = 6.0, *M* = 7.6, *n* = 36, *σ* = 6, conduct a one-sample *z* test at a 0.05 level of significance. For a one-tailed test, upper-tail critical, what is the decision?

to reject the null hypothesis

to retain the null hypothesis

There is not enough information since the sample size is not given.

4. ________ allows researchers to describe (1) how far mean scores have shifted in the population, or (2) the percentage of variance that can be explained by a given variable.

significance

probability

power

effect size

5. The ________ is an inferential statistic used to determine the number of standard deviations in a *t* distribution that a sample means deviates from the mean value or mean difference stated in the null hypothesis.

*t *distribution

*t *statistic

standard error

degrees of freedom

6. State the critical value(s) for the following two-tailed *t* test at a 0.05 level of significance: *t*(∞).

±1.645

±1.96

the same as for a two-tailed *z* test at a 0.05 level of significance

both ±1.96 and the same as for a two-tailed *z* test at a 0.05 level of significance

7. A researcher reports that the mean time it takes to complete an experimental task is 1.4 ± 8.0 (*M* ± *SD*) seconds. If the null hypothesis was that the mean equals 1.0, then what is the effect size for this test using estimated Cohen’s *d*?

*d* = 0.05; small effect size

*d* = 0.50; medium effect size

*d* = 1.05; large effect size

There is not enough information to answer this question.

8. Computing a two-independent sample *t* test is appropriate when

different participants are assigned to each group

the population variance is unknown

participants are observed one time

all of the above

9. A researcher has participants rate the likability of a sexually promiscuous person described in a vignette as being male (*n* = 20) or female (*n* = 12). The mean likability ratings in each group were 4.0. If the null hypothesis is that there is no difference in likability ratings, then do likability ratings differ at a 0.05 level of significance?

Yes, this result is significant, *p* < 0.05.

No, this result is not significant, *t*(30) = 0.

No, this result is not significant, *t*(30) = 1.00.

There is not enough information to answer this question, because the variance in each sample is not given.

10. A type of related samples design in which participants are observed more than once is called a

repeated measures design

matched pairs design

matched samples design

both matched pairs design and matched samples design